tv Doc Film - The End of the Sublime Porte Part 2 Deutsche Welle November 12, 2017 3:15pm-4:01pm CET
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retreat of the ottoman empire from europe lasted more than a century but its final disintegration took just four years as a consequence of the first world war. its last territories in a rabia mesopotamia syria and palestine became the modern day middle east borders and states were formed resulting in conflicts that periodic lee flare up to this day. the as. that. on april the twenty fifth
one nine hundred fifteen french and british troops attempted to land on the going to clip an incident in the dungeon and straight. the ultimate empire had been at war since november nine hundred fourteen as an ally of germany the austria-hungary an empire and bug area. the ultimate nominee led by the german commander lehman from sound us and the young autumn an officer mustapha kemal was able to force back the allies on glibly half a million people lost their lives and yet it literally was a victory for the ottomans. one of only a few in a war in which they only reluctantly participated.
since nine hundred thirteen the ottoman government had been heading pinal for a tarion nationalist triumvirate that had emerged from the young turks revolution. jamal pasha the minister of the navy. pasha the interior minister. and the pasha the war minister. he was the strongest advocate of the alliance with germany. when war became inevitable the three passions aligned the ottoman empire with germany from istanbul to the border of anatolia from palestine to yemen mobilisation occurred in all the remaining autumn and provinces. biggest like those nineteen fourteen was supposed to bring about the turkish revenge on the history they story go turning to poland but from the very first
battles the turks fared badly and neither the first nor the second world war saw the turks avenge their history at it again clotho give them until the last half of the stuff. the ottoman stood their ground in the west but they faced a debacle in the east. in one nine hundred fifteen and the passion went on the offensive against russia he wanted to conquer back last territories in the caucasus and expand the empire into central asia. winter became a trap typhoid cholera and hunger decimated the poorly equipped ottoman troops at times even before any fighting had occurred. but rather than accept responsibility for this disaster the ottoman high command sort of scapegoat in the armenians.
political long allegedly the armenians had collaborated with the russians in turkey somewhat to the much exaggerated number of eight and a half thousand damini and who it said had collaborated with the russians i think every. cover for taking a second cousin given that around thirteen million soldiers on the russian side and several million muslim soldiers on the ottoman side fourteen world war one eight and a half thousand people is a drop in the ocean a second good dog and dog of god and a sound ah me. oh the n.c.i. and i mean young population was accused of these quote criterions and that they also thought that they were going to be targeted for collective measures by the ottoman state that would lead to the eradication of the armenian population of
eastern out of tortilla and effectively the first modern genocide of history. on april the twenty fourth one hundred fifteen some two hundred primarily armenian intellectuals were arrested and murdered in istanbul an event that marks the beginning of the genocide. many ns in anatolia were deported to the syrian desert where they were murdered the german military mission stood by without intervening two thirds of the armenian population more than a million people were killed. the slaughter of the armenians is evidence of the ottoman empire as national chauvinism there was no room for christians any more it's hard core was turkish and its margins exclusively muslim.
in his role as kali for sometime messmate the fifth called for jihad islamic holy war when the empire entered the conflict. by calling for solidarity with the ottoman empire he aimed to provoke muslim uprisings in the colonies of the on time and powers. the borders of the ottoman empire were under threat from all sides russia or advance to persia france controlled north africa and british occupied egypt was used as a base for allied operations by calling for jihad the ottomans sought to destabilize the enemy from within. the ottoman minister the navy jamaal pasha was appointed governor general of ottoman syria. it covered the territory made up today of syria lebanon
israel palestine and jordan. jamal pascha had his sights set on reconquering egypt and expanding the arab and muslim margins that protected the turkish heart of the empire but his campaign against the british forces on the suez canal failed. the cole for holy war failed to unite muslims in support of the ottoman empire quite the opposite resentment was staring in its arab provinces over the increasingly centralized and thora tarion government of the young turks more than anything jamal pasha feared subversive activity by opposition movements. and behaviors in melbourne navy minister. maintained an extensive network of saunas
in an effort to discredit arab intellectuals and politicians with all means possible. out of his and the opposition ottoman administrative decentralisation party was very prominent at the time. yeah but. rather than f. ok ting independence for the empire as arab provinces it sought to regain their pre-war autonomy. but on that they told so demanded to officially languages in each region turkish and the local language. to end the dominance of turkish in the education system and the judiciary i love a lot of it i think it. jamal pascha responded to these demands with a heavy hand in spring nine hundred sixteen arab intellectuals and activists were arrested and executed as traitors in damascus beirut and jerusalem.
in a very concentrated four year period peoples in the air provinces suffered. in an unprecedented way that had made the burden of the thing under autumn and rule unbearable for the average arab autumn and citizen it made them very angry with their state and it made them want out. the ottomans banked on hussein bin ali the sheriff of mecca to throw the weight of his moral authority behind their holy war as an heir of the hashemite dynasty hussein was the guardian of the sacred sites of mecca and medina. but his agenda so to liberate the arab lands from ottoman rule and establish a single independent and unified arab state. the young turks rejected negotiations
and threatened to remove him. the british on the other hand offered him everything he wanted the independence of the ottoman arabs from mesopotamia to palestine under his leadership if he rebelled against turkey. jamaal passions reign of terror a spurt into action in june one nine hundred sixteen sheriff of st called upon the arabs to revolt against the empire. it was. his son emir faisal was put in charge of the rebellion. a young englishman stood by his side an archaeologist who was now working as
a secret agent. thomas and who had lawrence better known as lawrence of arabia. they conquered and pinned down the troops of the empire on several fronts enabling a british advance to palestine. in december nine hundred seventeen the british general edmund allonby. made a triumphant entry into jerusalem. can feel that with the arrival of general allen
be handed indian troops they formed the foundation of the british army at the time the war was practically over and with all the suffering it had cost at heart of well i've looked at the heart of coffee than this some also saw this as the end of the ottoman empire in particular the end of the oppression by chain pasha and his military administration that i scare the. damascus found at the end of september nine hundred eighteen fison immediately installed a provisional government. after just four years the break between the arabs and the ottoman empire was complete the ottoman army and is german allies capitulated on all fronts from palestine to mesopotamia.
the. young. sons and meth made the fifth died in july nine hundred eighteen his brother succeeded him on the throne as messmate the sixth. when germany the austrian hungary an empire and belgariad were also forced to retreat from the front in europe he was forced to accept a truce a short while later on october the thirtieth one thousand nine hundred. three passes talent and and jim who had taken the empire into war fled onboard a german submarine two days. the ottoman empire was in ruins.
ottoman government is very conscious that if they don't take action quickly to demonstrate to the outside world that they are responding to the war crimes of the young turks with severity that they would have the sort of suitable punishment imposed on them by the outside powers as part of the war as part of the settlement it's largely unknown in the west that immediately after the armistice the ottoman government convened a tribunal to put on trial those held responsible for the organization or for the perpetration of the massacre of armenians hundreds of leading officials from the provincial level right up to the central government were arrested over tried in absentia dozens were found guilty and convicted to death three were actually hanged
for their crimes some quite senior in the chain of command leading to the murder of thousands of armenians though obviously those most responsible architects of the genocide had already fled ottoman domains and would not be subject to ottoman justice. as much as the new government trying to distance itself from its young predecessors it was unable to prevent the fragmentation of the empire. the paris peace conference began on january the eighteenth one thousand nine hundred nineteen. faisal arrived with thomas edward lawrence to remind the british of their promise the prize of an arab kingdom.
the promise is only bind to those who believe in them during the war britain had secretly reached an agreement with its ally fronts against ottoman interests. a british agent in france was george p. co a french diplomat had negotiated a plan to divide the ottoman provinces. in the south britain took mesopotamia where it had secured several oil concessions. in the north france wanted to extend its area of influence in syria it had a long history of ties to the region having protected christian maronites in lebanon since the nineteenth century. the psychs pico agreement made no mention of finals kingdom. the secret deal carried more weight than the promise made to the emea.
france was given a mandate to syria the british withdrew and the final to fend for himself against france. on july twenty fourth one hundred twenty the final battle took place and in my saloon four days later faisal was forced into exile. it was the ultimate british betrayal of the promises that they made to the hashemites and was to remain what for arab nationalists would prove the resolved failure of the british to uphold their promises to the arabs to their right to shape their own future and in so doing of course created the problem that would be deviled the arab world right through the twentieth century reconciling the legitimacy of the frontiers in which the states of the arab world would be made to live not just in syria but in iraq and jordan and palestine eleven on it was to shape the at a warriors as
a moment of national struggle by divided arabs against their european colonial masters. it was to distort arab politics rather. france going to. use their design independence independence from the ottoman empire and the rest of syria. on september the first one hundred twenty the new state of great eleven and was founded in beirut. to make it more economically viable the state also incorporated the coastal cities of tire and tripoli as well as the first town to come. further treaties followed the paris peace conference in san rima seven every treaty further divided the remnants of the ottoman empire.
when french british and italian forces occupied istanbul the ottoman government had to accept renewed territorial losses. with you in a shark net many of us mourn the loss of the time when the arab world and the middle east weren't yet geographically nirvana there is your fee and he had the there's a lot of. southern lebanon and galilee where one region. the people traveled through trans-jordan as if it were all one country and. the same thing was true of syria and palestine. for us in cairo but at the up front
necessary shot right below never knew anything else that but when the british came and severed palestine from its arab neighbors not was over there were a lot of below which of them. the british received a mandate to administer the formally ottoman palestine a mandate which also provided for the creation of a jewish national home in palestine. to move up held a different war time promise one made to the zionist movement it's sort of a refuge for jews driven out of europe. in november nine hundred seventeen the british foreign secretary of the balfour stated his majesty's government view with favor the establishment in palestine of a national home for the jewish people. the
ottoman sultans had rejected any deal with the zionists even though large jewish communities had existed since antiquity in palestine jerusalem hebron and saf and. the british mandate supported the immigration of european jews fleeing anti semitism and the pogroms in russia. crain and poland new communities with a european background began living alongside locals rooted in muslim culture. and there was virtually no difference between muslims relationship to jews and christians. there was no antagonistic differentiation between jews and arabs in the ottoman empire my country out of you know what nobody would have talked about the jews or the arabs there were different regional groups and in some villages it was
christians who made up the majority in others it was julia. lao was sure that. there was coexistence that irish. affinity got to question the old to this day we assume that the old city of jerusalem encompassed four quarters of a jewish quarter muslim one and i mean ian and a christian but we view every quarter as exclusive but no historically it was and like a lot of jews lived in the muslim quote the british not the ottomans introduced this categorization and segregation. of money it was the british who divided up jerusalem's old city and issued passports noting citizens religious affiliation jews and muslims were separated.
and if chan mortis nineteen twenty marked the start of the in twenty minutes of the religion and nationalism then that live and religion lanter digital impetus to an ethnic nationalism. but it's not a religious wheel if that's the difference from the middle ages it's not a theological conflict it's a nationalist conflict between ethnic religious. let them or their niche a land of the other your religion is one of the one having a group against the others. at new york she had that i think it represents a missed opportunity at the need like school civil to ethnic to the hurt our scale . because i and i stand hellerstein you nationalism only reinforce each other at the philistinism the opportunity of an
arab zionism and the an arab jewish identity mixing was not a stream of me even though it existed in what instead of one movement for the other exclusively. in. it's an irony of history that the first world war was to end the divisions and the tragedies they had cause that it is not in reality it only cost new divisions. the method that in a thousand years or so it strengthened separatist movements and fostered new
religious conflicts. cutting what had a shrink. we see across the middle east pressures emerging from a state system that are a direct legacy. of the first world war and have marked the middle east as a result of conflict for the past century it's a sad truth that there really never has been a peace that has brought peace to the other front. what could be done about the chaos that ensued from the division of the ottoman empire. when the british failed to reconcile zionist an arab aspirations they decided to partition palestine with the jewish national home assigned to the west bank of the jordan river the east bank and therefore three quarters of ottoman
palestine became trans-jordan modern day jordan it was put under the command of finals brother abdullah. that quieted one front while another opened up. in june one nine hundred twenty a major rebellion erupted in mesopotamia also british mandated territory. it's thought that one uprising at a series of a price and tribal leaders revolted for different reasons religious holy cities revolted two different reasons it only to say no to the british for a different reason tiber leaders were angry because they were not paid by the british while their lives this month and now jeff and cut i was angry because of
the events taken a place in the neighboring iran's was the rage is a serviceman it was again this british presence in iran. the strategically important region of mesopotamia modern day iraq consisted of three ottoman provinces. the one around baghdad where sunnis shiites jews and christians all lived together. the largely kurdish mozilla and bastro which was majority shiite. the ottomans had conquered mesopotamia to protect themselves from their major shiite rival the persian empire modern day iran. since the nineteenth century britain had been interested in the region both because of its oil reserves and its position on one of the communication routes to india. after the
rebellion of nine hundred twenty colonize ation was no longer an option the issue now was to retreat while maintaining british interests. this was the task faced at the conference in cairo in march nine hundred twenty one by the new colonial secretary winston churchill. there was only one woman among the forty conference participants gertrude bell she would draw the lines of modern iraq . after the war london assigned her the task of devising a plan for mesopotamia she presented its outline of the cairo conference and autonomous kingdom of iraq was to be established one that was loyal to the british headed by financial the son of sheriff hussein. in the british had turned their back on.
that was the argument of well we knew that this group of loyal reliable group to roll iraq to form the new rolling negative class my thought problem was how to select a person as a king of the new kingdom that was really important issue so bell and others sought they will import family like in europe so they imitated this idea was very stupid not to elect someone with from within iraq so they brought someone from. a lot of beer from the arab peninsula and they thought this will succeed he will be a some will of unity but he did not have any popular basis nor place in our history our methody we were divided
society. by force. in august nineteen twenty one finds was crowned king of iraq in the absence of an iraqi national anthem the orchestra played god save the king. how you can create a state with different two groups of people of different attire dition with different languages different cultures and traditions so you have to use force. or force and physical force they failed as she had a lead in a very tiny group of sunni. based army officers to
a belt or to create an artificial state she thought these people are more than this force and a war will. succeed in creating a more than a state. you know by passage of time i thought it turned out to be amiss two thousand or three put an end to bell's project. in two thousand and three the us invaded iraq it was the end of an era during which a sunni clan ruled a shiite majority on the start of an eight year war that fueled unparalleled sectarian violence.
later places send the domain it army with a sunni dominated army so the dirt learned from past mistakes. the chaos of post-war iraq fostered a rise in islamic militancy and the emergence of jihadist groups like islamic state . the civil war raging in syria facilitated the advance of an army of sunni jihadists from iraq. in twenty fourteen its leader abu bakr al baghdadi declared a new caliphate in the territory of iraq in syria. the old borders set up by the psychs pekoe agreement were to be swept away the new order forced upon the ruins of the ottoman empire was to be destroyed. in both
iraq and syria kurds found themselves on the front lines in the war against us. it called attention to the plight of an ancient people with its own history culture and language arabic no turkish the. kurds are scattered across modern day iraq syria and turkey the people without a state forgotten during the division of the ottoman empire. until the nineteenth century the kurds didn't have a national identity they merely saw themselves as subjects of the ottoman empire as part of ottoman society. and an empire identity who was defined by religious rather than national terms their wing was members and no muslims since the cuts were muslims they were treated like the majority of muslims oh that they had semi
autonomous status they too had to pay taxes and do military service that prevented the development of a national consciousness until the end of the nineteenth century only when the autumn an era came to an end did this consciousness arise in reaction to the empire as attack if occasion. tells us that was one of the debts when they realized they were different they were oppressed they had been assimilated and extinguished . only when they developed that would tunnel under this pressure.
after the ottomans were defeated there were plans to create a state for the kurds that's what it says in the treaty of seven which settled the details of the breakup of the ottoman empire. an autonomous kurdish region was to be established in eastern anatolia neighboring . state. they also an empire would then be limited to the region around istanbul and western anatolia but the provisions of seven were never implemented. resistance to autumn and rule grew in anatolia a weakened and discredited regime because it had accepted the humiliating peace treaty of seven. it wasn't long before a national liberation army emerged as a result a techie shammy that fought for the restoration of serenity it was led by the hero
of deliberately stuff that came. he established a provisional government in ankara in anatolia he no longer recognized the authority of the sultan nothing could stop his army. in september one nine hundred twenty two he marched into greek occupied smith in a modern day is mia the town was raised the greek population massacred. the last troops loyal to the sultan surrendered meth made the sixth was forced to step down the imperial ottoman family sent into exile.
stuff abolished the sultanate and on october the twenty ninth one thousand twenty three he proclaimed a new turkish republican state. the treaty of luzon replace that of seven and recognize the existing borders there would be no kurdish state. the turkish national identity was ethnically defined. anatolian and sunni muslim the former hard core of the ottoman empire. mustapha kma wanted to create a modern secular state that put the past behind but just as in the previous century religious identity continued to inform national identity. for the very first time is emerging in the modern era a muslim state that can tell christian states where to stop which it had done that
was the achievement of attitude so i think for the republicans the turkish national pride in the consolidation of the national consciousness is bound up from the start with this sense of having done something that the ottomans for several centuries had been unable to do which is to hold western power. at the same time as becoming west. after the first world war the nation state asserted itself but what was to be done about minority ethnic groups. greece and the newly established turkish republic opted for a radical solution. starting in one thousand nine hundred twenty four five hundred thousand muslims were expelled from greece and almost a million greek orthodox christians from taki.
exist as long as no claim is laid on citizenship zones to see trying to as soon as such a claim is made a state must be founded it. but on what basis on an ethnic. linguistical concessional basis. it's a sign but i think the ottoman russian and austria hungary and empires weren't able to resolve this question of wish good luck of course in the historical context of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries this decline was inevitable as to have to design again that can take in everything though it didn't necessarily have to proceed in this way said foma. shouldn't the end of the ottoman empire with its long history of chaos and violence
make us think about states nations and borders. about other models of living together about types of unions to heal the wounds caused by the division of the empire. wounds in the balkans and in the middle east that still undermine hopes for stability in the world today. once a victim of the cultural revolution now a celebrated bach interpreter pianist. after over